Dr. Cory Hammond of the Univ. of Utah School of Medicine compiled this comprehensive list of studies and articles for the International Society of Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR). The organization encourages much more research. Additional research will help neuroscientists understand why Neurofeedback is often effective with many brain-based conditions. Over 1000 published studies that support the field are listed in this link. The initial research in Neurofeedback starting in the late 1960’s was animal based. One of the first studies published showed that training cats to change their EEG increased their seizure threshold (reduced seizures). Before any human studies, there was solid animal research establishing that animals can change their EEG and that changes produce a profound effect on brain function.

This research listing categorizes by ADHD and Attention, migraines, anxiety, depression, seizures and a variety of other conditions.

Evidence-Based Practice in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback:

Joseph J. Horvat, PhD and Corydon Hammond, PhD, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury(MTBI)–The “Missed” Diagnosis”

Monastra, (2002)-Abstract of an ADHD research paper demonstrating that both stimulant medication and neurofeedback significantly reduced ADHD symptoms but only the neurofeedback trained children retained the benefits after cessation of the medication. http://

LENS Neurofeedback Research

The following is a list of LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System) studies and references. A double issue of the Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 10 2-3 was devoted to LENS.  Links to several articles are included in this review:

  • The Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Cripe, C. T. (2006). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neuro-developmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 79-87. Download PDF
  • Donaldson, C. C. S., Sella, G. E., & Mueller, H. H. (1998). Fibromyalgia: A retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5 (6), 116-127. Download PDF
  • Esty, M. L. (2006). Reflections on FMS treatment, research, and neurotherapy: Cautionary tales. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 63-68. Hammond, D. C. (Ed.). Download PDF
  • LENS: The Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press.
  • Cory Hammond:  Introduction to LENS Issue, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 10 2-3, p 1-4. Download PDF
  • Hammond, D. Corydon(2010) ‘LENS Neurofeedback Treatment of Anger: Preliminary Reports’, Journal of Neurotherapy, 14: 2, 162 – 169 :
  • Kravitz, H. M., Esty, M. L., Katz, R. S., & Fawcett, J. (2006). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the Flexyx Neurotherapy System: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 41-58.
  • Larsen, S. (2006). The healing power of neurofeedback. Rochester, VT: The Healing Arts Press. Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006).
  • The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78. Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D. C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006). Download PDF
  • The LENS neurofeedback with animals. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104. Mueller, H. H., Donaldson, C. C. S., Nelson, D. V., & Layman, M. (2001).
  • Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical outcomes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7), 933-952. Ochs, L. (2006). Download PDF
  • The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS): Theory, background, and introduction. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 5-39. Ochs, L. (2006). Download PDF
  • Comment on the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the Flexyx Neurotherapy System: A randomized controlled clinical trial, or how to go crazy over nearly nothing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 59-61.
  • Len Ochs:  Comment on Neurofeedback Overtraining, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 11:3, p. 67-71. Download PDF
  • Schoenberger, N. E., Shiflett, S. C., Esty, M. L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R. J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274.